Step 1.1: Opportunity for KT: Assess needs for device or service with input from relevant stakeholders from the six knowledge user (KU) groups.
Activities that may complicate team-based knowledge work include: framing the nature of the problem, scoping boundary conditions, identifying current and needed resources, establishing adequate task time frames, and clarifying roles and expected deliverables.
Communities may have considerable distrust of research, possibly due to negative prior experiences with research and/or authority in general.
If leaders in a partnership are not diligent, their programs can serve to emulate or augment the hierarchies they attempt to flatten and the components of the logic model will reinforce pre-determined "decisionless decisions" based on dominent members' agendas.
Meetings between scientists and programmers were held to assure that the alternatives would accomplish the scientists' goals, and the programmers wrote up functional specifications describing their plans. The programmers did not comprehend what the scientists told them, and the scientists did not comprehend what the programmers told them they intended to do. The new product version was found to be unacceptable when it was tested.
One of the factors that can impede knowledge translation is knowledge asymmetry. As one example, the knowledge user (in need) may know more about a particular issue, while the researcher (with interest) may know more about potential solutions. The knowledge user’s limited awareness of potential solutions may make them sceptical about the researcher’s confidence in the proposed solution. The researcher may feel undervalued. One approach the knowledge user and researcher could take to bridge the gap is to invest time in building a professional relationship and establishing mutual trust.
Organizational executives often state that they are exposed to more new ideas (research findings) than they have resources to explore. Researchers need to devise ways of getting their attention, communicating value and sourcing resources.
Organizational executives often state they do not have the time to consider the applicability of new research findings. Researchers need to devise ways of getting their attention and communicating value.
Researchers and stakeholders are usually able to quickly identify situations where rhetoric has replaced agreed upon and expected project behaviour. Rhetoric often triggers mistrust and a re-evaluation of commitments in response. Consider ‘partnering’ in collaborative research as one example. Partnering with stakeholders is a relatively new trend in research. Researchers and stakeholders must be able to consistently demonstrate, through their words and actions that genuine partnering behavior will occur. This can be challenging, especially early in the project when the capabilities of the respective parties are not fully known to each other. Creating formal (e.g., joint development of deliverables) and informal (e.g., social events) opportunities for parties to interact can help to provide evidence of agreed upon behaviour or provide a shared platform to challenge exceptions.
Some researchers may have reservations about conducting user-driven research projects that have immediate utility. These types of projects are often difficult to develop in real-time and the results may be too proprietary or too hard to share or generalize – potentially limiting the value to the researcher.
Unrecognized needs: Market segment may not want to admit that they have a need for a particular type of product or service.
When executives deliberate about the value of applying research in their organization, one of the factors they often consider is the “replicability” of the research findings, especially in their setting. Researchers should clearly communicate “replicability.”
When organizational executives deliberate about the value of applying research in their organization, one of the factors they often consider is the “scalability” of the research findings. Researchers should clearly communicate “scalability.”
Joint enterprises can strengthen the bond between researchers and practitioners, and nurture a sustainable project community. Co-location of researchers and practitioners represents one form of joint enterprise. This approach enables researchers to see how practices are conducted and hear how practices are discussed (and practitioners to see how research is conducted and hear how research is discussed). Often, the increased opportunity for informal observation and interaction nurtures an environment where co-creation and co-ownership are common outcomes.
KT requires constant effort. Relationships need to be carefully maintained, which is difficult given the constraints on investigators of funding levels and cycles. However, such vigilance avoids misunderstandings, reaffirms commitment to change and overcomes any attempts to undermine the effort. The most successful KT initiatives actively evolve in parallel with the needs of the user communities.
Knowledge translation literacy – Establishing relevant research questions – Researchers tend to begin by observing a broad or abstract problem and then narrowing down to a very specific question that can be answered with confidence following a scientific method. In our experience, practitioners may take the inverse approach. They encounter a very specific or practical problem, and, in the course of framing research questions, their inquiry broadens and they see a whole family of interconnected issues that impinge on the question that also need to be addressed. In both cases, the process of defining the problem and the question are learning exercises. But the processes seem to move in opposite directions, and it can be challenging to execute a delimited project that makes sense and is meaningful to everyone. Involving stakeholders can help to isolate and hone the research question. They can be helpful in identifying policy nuances, complexities, contradictions, and systemic links that needed to be taken into account for the study to be comprehensive.
Knowledge translation literacy – Stakeholder drivers – Awareness of decision-makers’ time frames and a community’s priorities can help researchers to better align their projects and deliverables. Questions researchers might ask themselves include: What are any upcoming stakeholder-driven decision points or events that our research might impact?
Mutual engagement between researchers and stakeholders promotes the identification of common issue and concerns and enables them to jointly frame a project that encourages mutual commitment and seeks mutual value.
Researchers can benefit from establishing ongoing partnerships with key knowledge users (stakeholder groups). As a researcher gets to know a stakeholder group, there is the potential to develop a trusting relationship, which can lead to greater openness and opportunities to better understand the issues that drive the stakeholder group and the kinds of important questions that remain unanswered and remain open to research.
The inclusion of a policy entrepreneur on a research project can enhance: policy-related research focus, policy stakeholder understanding of the project and engagement in related activities, and the relevance, transferability and use of research findings by policy stakeholders.
To overcome processing problems that technically-oriented developers may have with processing written descriptions of user needs, present the information in the form of user-needs tables instead.
A Team-Based Knowledge Work (TBKW) theoretical framework can be used to identify the most appropriate type of team-based knowledge work based on team’s knowledge composition (homogeneous, heterogeneous) and the nature of the problem being solved (ill-structured, well-structured). A 2 x 2 matrix distinguishes the four types of TBKW: collaborative (ill-structured problem and heterogeneous knowledge composition), integrative (ill-structured problem and homogenous knowledge composition), modular (well-structured problem and heterogeneous knowledge composition), and standardized (well-structured problem and homogenous knowledge composition).
6 main steps for identifying user needs, analyzing data and making use of findings: identify stakeholder and user groups, visit users and explore their needs, describe the current situation, analyze and prioritize the problems and possibilities, redesign the current situation, and define user requirements
Community based participatory research is meant to foster reserach that is collaborative, participatory, empowering, systematic, and transformative.
Conference proceeding reports results of a survey involving 200 respondents regarding their knowledge transfer activity, with much of the content drawn from a 2007 peer-reviewed paper by Landry, Amara & Ouimet in the Journal of Technology Transfer. Study of new population has similar results: transfer determined by linkages with knowledge users and study focused on topic relevant to knowledge users.
Embedding a researcher in the target practice setting can achieve a number of benefits. Knowledge users have an opportunity to observe how the researcher works (how they translate and apply knowledge) and not just what the researcher knows (as evidenced by the end product of their work). The knowledge is made visible and more amenable to adaptation and application.Knowledge users can also immediately see the relevance and value of the knowledge in the context of their own work.
From a design perspective, a user-centered approach is necessary to ensure that a concept [for a device or service] will be useful and indeed used. However to deployed in a real environment, it is also essential that the solution can be used by everyone, including family members their carers, and doctors. Ideally, the solution should be useful to all peple.
Involve consumers in specifying customer product needs
Knowledge brokering – the closer the knowledge brokering service matches the knowledge users’ needs and environment, the more likely the brokering services will be used. One way to facilitate this alignment is to conduct an in-depth needs assessment with potential participants. This approach is helpful in building relationships between the broker and potential users – which facilitates trust and sustainable engagement. This approach also enables the broker to better understand the life cycle of the users’ project and to adapt service offerings to changing needs.
Market and sensory methodologies facilitate the optimization of products, in terms of extrinsic and intrinsic design attributes, for the development of products targeted at specific end-user groups. The information gathered can be used to establish the current competitive position, and enable product developers to identify market niches for new, and improved products.
Must be aware that examining product effectiveness as compared to productivity outcomes or marketplace performance will correlate higher with NPD success and cross functional integration
One way to transfer knowledge (and best practices) is to facilitate expert interaction through a community of practice (e.g., Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company) or a knowledge community (e.g., United Microelectronics Corporation) – charging the experts with a specific knowledge challenge and releasing them to explore solutions. It is a dynamic process involving exploration and exploitation. This approach is typically used to transfer knowledge laterally across business units.
Product effectiveness is driven by internal input from Team Leaders and Senior Management, and by external input from Customers, which together forms a clear vision for the intended product.
Radical innovations require an extended
front end to the Stage-Gate process—with
extensive exploring and experimenting and probing
and learning rather than targeting and developing.
Researchers generate new knowledge while working in communities of research, health professionals operate in communities of practice, patients operate their own communities of support. Interacting with all three communities are formally organized governmental organizations, as well as health care industry organizations.
Techniques for gathering voice of the customer information include: use of customer complaints, internal market research, focus groups, one-to-one interviews, phone interviews, contextual enquiry, customer behavior studies, and perceptual mapping.
The Participatory Action Knowledge Translation (PAKT) model can be used to specifically answer the research question: What is the nature of the process of implementing KT through social interaction? The answer to this question emphasizes the integration of the ‘how to’ with the ‘what’ of KT – specifically, by paying attention to KT content, KT context and KT facilitation. KT content is not simply acquired as fact and applied. Rather, KT content is learned, via interpretation, formation, contextualization and performance and becomes incorporated into the craft of professional practice. KT context is leveraged when all KT participants experience a level playing field for the expression of factors they each consider to impede or facilitate KT. Skilled facilitators, jointly chosen by KT participants, enhance the process of KT.
The range of participants in R&D is broad and requires someone to oversee the integration of all the elements that constitute the innovation process. All of the external actors that create value or knowledge may join in R&D, including customers, suppliers and distributors, with all due consideration of the span of control and confidentiality issues.
The study mapped out what the research findings would mean to different groups of actors (stakeholders) involved. In the process they identified six Stakeholder Groups: 1) Clinicians; 2) Consumers; 3) Researchers; 4) Policy Makers; 5) Information Brokers; 6) Manufacturers.
Utilization of market research early in the new product development process, and continuing throughout the entire development phase is critical to ensuring success.
Voice of the Customer Information as a Best Practice for the NPD process:
1) Market and buyer behavior studies are a valuable source of information for planning the market launch.
2) Market research as a tool to help define the product.
3) The customer or user ought to be an integral part of the Development process.
4) Identification of customers or users real or un-articulated needs and their problems, is considered fundamental to voice-of-the-customer research, and should be a key input to product design.
5) Working with highly innovative users or customers.
When measuring the success of NPD, use objective measures, such as sales or profits, instead of subjective measures
Manufacturers should carefully analyze and integrate the input and knowledge from both the potential early and late adopters, and then design and adjust product features accordingly.
Use the Delphi method as a tool to identify future consumer needs.
An emphasis on generating information on customers’ existing
and latent needs and the activities of competitors, and employ this
in both idea generation and screening of ideas and concepts.
Consider that service products benefit more strongly from CFI than goods.
Do not always assume that embedding external researchers in an operational environment will immediately lead to the adoption of research findings. As one example, the complexities of the environment and/or research findings may require substantial time and resource commitments to achieve organizational buy-in.
Effective user involvement has shown to yield a variety of benefits: 1) Improved quality of the system; avoidance of costly features that the user did not want or cannot use; 3) improved levels of acceptance; 4) greater understanidng of the system by the user resulting in more effective use; and 5) increased participation in decision-making within the organization.
If funding organizations are going to require explicit identification of knowledge translation activities in research proposals, the funding organizations should ensure that researchers fully understand the purpose and processes associated with knowledge translation. Funding organizations should also strongly encourage researchers to consider the addition of relevant knowledge translation thinking and activities early in the research planning stages. It is important that researchers demonstrate awareness of the value and benefits of incorporating knowledge translation in their projects, and not just appear to be complying with funder requirements by ‘ticking-off-boxes.’
If the integrated KT approach (which leverages the involvement of key stakeholders from research inception to completion) is used, ensure that adequate funding is allocated for promotional activities (e.g., public appearances, including information booths at local malls, storefronts and community exhibits; newsletters, public awareness campaigns and advertisements.
In the government policy making process, it is important to remember that research evidence often competes with other forms of evidence (e.g., budgetary constraints and the legal code) and with values (e.g., public opinion about the role of government versus the market). The receptivity of a policy proposal can be influenced by how it aligns with (or is given visibility by) other institutional arrangements (e.g., jurisdictional authorities, past policies and practices, etc.) and interests (e.g., elected officials’ commitments, civil servants’ authorities, advisory bodies, etc.).
Increase the levels of learning orientation and marketing power within your firm while utilizing proactive marketing orientation and the impact on new product program performance will increase.
Involvement of customers with strong past ties will result in the development of products with higher competitive performance than those that involve customers with no or few past ties. However, this practice is most effective when developing incremental produts, rather than highly innovative products.
Knowledge brokers can act as bridging agents, helping researchers to understand stakeholders and their environment and helping stakeholders to understand researchers and the research project – and the mutual benefits associated with their involvement. Knowledge brokering is demanding and often difficult work. Knowledge brokers can benefit from the availability of a formal support infrastructure, adequate resourcing, and allocations of time that enable them to build and sustain an understanding of researcher and stakeholders operations. Knowledge brokers may also be good candidates for co-authorship of scholarly papers and co-presenters at workshops or conferences.
Knowledge translators should adopt conceptualizations of knowledge, evidence, and KT as human processes fraught with all of the challenges of human subjectivity, dynamic interaction, and change within a complex context.
Maintain responsive market orientation when there is a high level of consensus regarding the firms strategy.
Managerial excellence is critical to product success. Products are more likely to be successful if they are planned and implemented well. Project planning should include all phases of the development process; research, development, engineering, manufacturing, and market introduction. Development does not have to be a linear process. The process should be regularly and formally monitored throughout the life of the project.
Needs analysis includes problem definition and problem validation. These activities are foundational to the initiation of the systems engineering process and to the successful execution of the design and qualification of both the operational and development systems.
Program and logic model design with partnership research needs 1) participation of community members early in the program design, 2) empowerment as an acknowledged program outcome, 3) rewards for all members and organizations, and 4) a strategic-planning process that explores and acknowledges the priorities, responsibilities, relationships, and power dynamics.
Research design: Where possible, involve an international, interdisciplinary team of experts and professionals in the design of the research program and its related content. Active and regular researcher interaction with political and policy decision-makers is highly recommended.
Research execution: Integrated KT Plan – Timeline and Content: For the research design, active research and study completion phases, the plan identifies the respective stakeholders, their reason for inclusion and their contribution to the study.
Researchers can benefit from establishing ongoing partnerships with key knowledge users (stakeholder groups). Each stakeholder group brings a unique and informed perspective that can positively influence research design and knowledge translation strategy.
Researchers can benefit from the involvement of frontline personnel of knowledge user groups (stakeholder groups), the individuals directly involved in applying the knowledge in their projects. Frontline personnel are often acutely aware of current client demographics and have first-hand evidence of existing knowledge/practice deficits.This enables them to ask important questions that others may not have anticipated. Participation can be a welcome break from their regular responsibilities, an opportunity to learn new skills, an exemplar of how to move evidence into practice, and stimulate professional renewal and inspiration. Involving frontline personnel also helps to bridge communications with researchers.
Researchers should move out of their familiar context and into the context of the user group to gain insights for effective knowledge translation.
Researchers should not assume that practitioners will see any direct connection between academic research and the practices of their organization. Researchers should take the time to help practitioners make the connection.
Such broad community engagement also necessitates involvement of the professional community in doalogue that goes beyond traditional disciplines, roles and responsibilities towrads a transdisciplinary approach to science and practice if knowledge is to be adequately moved through this complex system.
The empirical data gathered during the present study suggests that a user
involvement project during NPD should consider the following key strategies (research
(1) users identifying needs in their own setting of use;
(2) users identifying needs in their various roles;
(3) providing users with analytical tools;
(4) motivating users via the apparent benefit to be gained from their involvement;
(5) non-reliance on brainstorming when generating ideas;
(6) users not having too much knowledge of technology; and
(7) the involvement of a heterogeneous group of users to ensure that a diversity of
ideas is provided for future services.
There is a huge gap to bridge between the kind of questions that policy makers would like to have answered, and the kind of answers that researchers can typically provide. For example, policy makers rarely transmit clear messages on their knowledge needs to inform a feasible and timely solution to a problem within their context. While researchers produce scientific evidence that is not always tailor-made for applications in specific contexts, while also being careful to qualify their findings and set the limitations of their interpretation.
To improve short-term competitive performance of products in the marketplace, projects to develop incremental new products should involve homogeneous groups of customers.
What is missing from the logic model are some of the less tangible variables, such as the relationships that form between people, and the intra-personal variables that contribute or detract from such a program.
When a client (stakeholder) is involved in the knowledge translation process, the practitioner may solicit, validate and integrate client-supplied knowledge (about the client’s situation and environment) into the overall knowledge translation process.
When a practitioner is involved in a knowledge translation process, they may supplement the new (research-based) knowledge with knowledge drawn from past professional experience, training and discourse.
When forming teams, investigators should give consideration to the knowledge base/requirements of individual team members. Heterogeneous team knowledge typically implies a greater need for knowledge sharing between team members. Project practices (e.g., workshopping) and resources should be allocated to account for the increased demand for sharing. Conversely, homogenous team knowledge suggests a reduced requirement for knowledge sharing. Project practices and resources should focus on optimizing individual team member productivity.
When knowledge translation process involves collaboration with the client (stakeholder), interactions with the client can shape the knowledge translation process before research is even accessed.
When operating at higher levels of responsive market orientation, ensure that any proactive market orientation activities are at lower levels to increase new product program performance. When operating at higher levels of proactive market orientation, use lower levels of responsive market orientation.
Challenges in developer/user collaboration include: motivating the developers, identifying appropriate users, obtaining acces to users, motivating the users, and deriving benefits from user contacts when established.
Documentation of external knowledge may not be in a useful format for finding a solution to the problem at hand.
Obstacles to obtaining external information could stem from a company's inability to recognize, assimilate and apply external knowledge, poor absorptive capacity.
The absence of interactions between researchers and decision makers (knowledge users) has been cited as the primary reason for low utilization of research findings.
According to policy scientists, involving the target users of research information from the start of the process -- such as policymakers and healthcare providers -- would favor the eventual uptake and use of research results.
Actively involving knowledge users as partners in the research process is a strong predictor that the research findings will be used and that the research endeavor overall will achieve a greater impact.
Annual community forums can be an effective way to engage a community. Forums can be targeted at prioritizing research actions or on knowledge transfer related to research results. Common objectives are to facilitate mutual learning and collaboration among research and community members and to improve research outcomes and the dissemination of research findings by providing knowledge transfer around the policy and research process to the community. Typically, forums are conducted from half to a full day and include 80–100 research knowledge producers and users.
Early and ongoing involvement of relevant decision makers (knowledge users) in the conceptualization and conduct of a research study can be a strong predictor of its utilization.
Involving stakeholders throughout the research cycle may improve their investment in the research.
Knowledge brokers are a potential strategy for moving knowledge to action. The rationale for knowledge brokers is the need to provide an intermediary who could facilitate collaborations between researchers and research users and find research evidence to shape decisions, be able to assess this evidence, interpret it and adapt it to circumstances and identify emerging management and policy issues that research could help inform. Knowledge of marketing and communication and the capacity to span boundaries and understand the potentially disparate worlds that researchers and knowledge users live in is also needed. Based on this skill set, individuals with diverse experience in both the research and decision or policy-making worlds or organizations whose mandate is to span these worlds would be ideal knowledge brokers. From this description, it can be concluded that knowledge brokering is certainly not new. Relationship brokers exist in most organizations and sectors. What is new, however, are growing calls to recognize and formalize this role in the KT process not only to evaluate its effectiveness but also to capitalize on the benefits it can bring to the process while also learning more about its potential drawbacks
Knowledge translation activities benefit from involvement of stakeholders early in the research process and establishing effective working relationships with them. Where possible, provide opportunities for in-person meetings.
Many decision makers (knowledge users) consider interaction-focused approaches to be valuable ways to facilitate knowledge utilization.
Networks, including communities of practice, knowledge networks, and soft networks, are potentially effective mechanisms for knowledge dissemination and application because their principal purpose is to connect people who might not otherwise have an opportunity to interact, enable dialog, stimulate learning, and capture and diffuse knowledge. A community of practice is a group of people who share a common concern, a set of problems, or interest in a topic and who come together to fulfill both individual and group goals usually focused on improving professional practice. Although communities of practice tend to be relatively informal, a knowledge network is a more formal community consisting of groups of experts from different fields who come together around a common goal or issue. Finally, a soft network is a large referral system whereby members sign onto a LISTSERV primarily for the purpose of making connections. Each type of network can play a role in the dissemination of knowledge.
Providing stakeholders with adequate and regular opportunities for face-to-face conversations about the research can positively influence their openness and the longevity of relationships.
Strive to ensure that the research project has direct relevance to the targeted knowledge users. One way to promote relevance is to engage in collaborative research, drawing upon the expertise of researchers and stakeholders.
Success factors for integrated knowledge translation (which brings together researchers and knowledge users for the purpose of generating, exchanging, and applying knowledge to understand and address an issue) include: a process to develop a shared perspective, common language, and common understanding about the issue that stakeholders will be focusing on; a plan for collaboration with explicit description of roles and responsibilities and a commitment to regularly assess its effectiveness; participants with competencies and experiences in building, negotiating, and maintaining effective research and knowledge translation collaborations; a strategy for ensuring that trusting relationships among stakeholders are maintained and conflicts are resolved appropriately when they arise; and institutional support, including incentives in both academic and knowledge user environments, could also facilitate success.
The existence of an overarching relationship (historical or longstanding) between a researcher and relevant decision makers (knowledge users), where research utilization is only one activity in the larger, ongoing relationship, can be important for the utilization of research findings.
Timing and timeliness can increase (and poor timing or lack of timeliness can decrease) the prospects for research use.
To mitigate power inequalities and transcend the different cognitive and cultural worlds of participating stakeholders, an independent facilitator should guide the process and fulfill an intermediary role as a knowledge broker.
Web-enabled market research or e-voice of the customer could improve product developers ability to ascertain customers reactions throughout the entire design process and even monitor the product as it is being used.
When planning, implementing or evaluating a knowledge translation (innovation) process, diffusion theory suggests that one of the factors that can influence the appeal of new knowledge to a potential knowledge user is how the new knowledge is communicated to the potential knowledge user – the effectiveness of communication channels used. As one example, early awareness-raising through interpersonal networks can enhance the speed of circulation and the social mechanisms that promote receptivity to the new knowledge.
When planning, implementing or evaluating a knowledge translation (innovation) process, diffusion theory suggests that one of the factors that can influence the process and outcome is the social system – the contextual space in which the knowledge is expected to be used (e.g., individual, institutional, political, and environmental factors). As one example, one set of factors that can determine how and if new knowledge will reach its intended audience is the past history of potential knowledge users (e.g., previous practices, the felt needs or problems experienced, their innovativeness, and the norms of the social system in which they are embedded).
New products were more successful if they were designed to satisfy a perceived need than if they were developed to simply take advantage of a new technology.
For demand articulation, dialogue between end-users and producers of knowledge and information, as well as other relevant stakeholders, should take place throughout the innovation process.
Listening to the customer's needs early in the product development process has been identified as being critical for eventual market success.
Some areas of innovation lend themselves better to participatory development than others, and different types of innovation (incremental vs. radical) call for particular competences on the part of participating end users.
The market research methods most frequently cited by Fortune 500 companies include: focus groups (used by 68% of compaines surveyd); limited rollout (42%); concept tests (26%); show tests and clinics (19%); attitude and usage studies (19%); conjoint analysis (15%); Delphi (9%); quality function deployment (9%); home usage tests (9%); product life-cycle models (8%); and synetics (8%).
"Camp out" in the consumers home or work environment. Non-intrusively observe how the consumer interacts with their current products and take note of any problems or issues that arise.
60% to 80% of successful technical innovations were the result of attempts to meet a need or satisfy demand- i.e. market pull forces.
Among computer and medical equipment manufacturers, successful new products incorporated greater use of market informatin in the NPD process, while failed products used less.
Conduct indepth face to face consumer interviews with the entire project team. Create and use a well thought out interview guide which probes for consumer unmet needs and problems which may or not even be realized by the consumers.
Consideration of Industry context as external driver (competitive rivalry, environmental turbulence) of new product success
Customer input during the idea/concept development stage of new product development is more effective in enhancing product quality than in subsequent stages, such as product design.
Identify and form relationships with lead user consumer groups. Engage them in meetings to discuss any innovative ideas they may have.
In studies of new product successes, researchers concluded that satisfying consumer wants was key to developing successful new products. Chay (1089) related the new product failure rate to inadequate expenditures on strategic market analysis and on assessment of consumer needs and wants.
Look for customers latent needs because a proactive market orientation is an important role for NPD performance.
One factor that can influence a knowledge user’s decision to become involved and play a role in a research project is the degree of alignment between the knowledge user’s expertise and the focus of the research project.
Organizational strength (strategy, skills, culture) as driver of new product success
The inclusion of stakeholders early in the design process focuses on the "user requirements" element of concurrent engineering and mitigates the risk of numerous user-generated design changes later in the development process.
The sole act of rendering research results understandable by stakeholders may be of limited value. Real benefits are often derived from the application of research results that respond to a specific stakeholder need.
Understanding customer needs and preferences is a key factor in new product success.
Use focus group sessions to invite consumers to discuss their problems and challenges. Host brainstorming events with consumers and the project team to come up with innovative solutions to their problems. Obtain consumer input online through your company's website.
Use online idea-generation sessions with target consumers by setting up a private online research site. Ideas produced this way are found to be more unique and of higher quality.